IntroductionThe model for this proposed syllabus is based on the voluntarily-introduced British Syllabus. This syllabus is set out in two main sections; (A) groundschool and (B) Practical.
Some of these skills will be taught by a Paragliding Instructor and some by a Powered Paragliding Instructor or Trainer. The Latter will effectively do a Motorised Conversion.
- A pilot under training will fly under direct instruction from the instructor at all times.
- No student may fly under power until the required un-powered flight skill levels relating to the required tasks has been fully demonstrated to the satisfaction of the PPG instructor.
- A pilot under Powered Flight training will fly only either within sight of or in pre-arranged radio contact with a designated instructor unless he is performing a declared cross country task.
- All Paragliding Skills (for the purposes of Powered Paragliding) shall be taught in accordance with guidance and regulations produced by the South African Hanggliding and Paragliding Association (SAHPA), with the exception of the mountain flights requirements, which may be substituted by Winch Launched flights.
- Powered Training may commence only once Un-powered Paragliding training has been completed.
- All Powered Skills shall be taught by an approved Powered Paragliding Instructor
Canopy, Clothing, Instruments, Power Unit
General Weather, Patterns and Forecasts, Local Weather, Cross Country
Flight Theory, Powered Paraglider Aerodynamics, Airmanship, Air Law
Pre-motorised Flight, Motor Unit Ground Work, Powered Flight
- The Canopy
- Daily checks and pre-flight checks.
The student will demonstrate daily and pre-flight checks and demonstrate his knowledge of the materials and methods used in the construction of the canopy.
The student will demonstrate his knowledge of the need for regular inspections and maintenance of his canopy, the harness and the emergency parachute, including required schedule for emergency parachute re-packing.
The student will demonstrate a knowledge of the need for appropriate clothing including boots, helmet, gloves, flying suit etc.
No scarves, jacket drawstrings, long hair!
The student will demonstrate the use of an altimeter (including the understanding and use of QNH settings) and a compass and will be able to demonstrate his knowledge of the circumstances in which these should be used.
Applications, concepts and usage of GPS, Variometer, Tachometer, EGT meters and other instrumets will also be understood.
- The Power Unit
The pilot under training will demonstrate an understanding of all the component parts of the motor unit and their inter-relationships. Particular emphasis will relate to:-
- care, balancing and tracking of propellers.
- safety cages and the importance of maintaining them in good condition;
- fuel taps; ignition switches emergency engine stopping.
- spark plug and lead;
- the risk of damage to the motor unit and in particular the throttle cable during transit.
- correctly rigging the motor to the glider in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.
- vibrations, their effects and methods of preventing its consequences.
- Mixing Fuel
The pilot under training will demonstrate an understanding of:
- mixing fuel.
- different mixtures for running in and subsequent periods and the need to keep an engine time log book;
- the difference between synthetic and other oils;
- reasons why petrochemicals and paragliders don't mix.
The pilot under training will gain an understanding of:
- the need to operate safely and what can go wrong.
- ways of protecting himself and others during running in periods; an appreciation of the power generated by the propeller at full engine speed is essential;
- safety procedures associated with helpers starting the motor unit
- procedures in the event of fire.
- general fitness, eyesight, the effect of drugs, alcohol etc.
- Starting Procedures
The pilot under training will gain an understanding of starting procedures, including:
- clearing the area and clear prop.
- checking the motor unit to ensure that everything is in its proper place, e.g. plug lead;
- check the fuel tank contents.
- fuel tap;
- choke (where fitted);
- pull handle etc.
- demonstrate an understanding of the warm-up of the motor for correct running.
- General Weather
The pilot under training will demonstrate a general understanding of weather patterns, and associated wind direction and strength.
- Weather Patterns and forecasts
The pilot under training will demonstrate an understanding of how weather systems affect flying conditions. An understanding of the following will be demonstrated.
- Cloud recognition
- High and low pressure systems and fronts.
- Unstable weather, turbulence & gust fronts.
- Stable weather, effect on visibility and inversions.
- Stable/unstable conditions
- Local Weather
The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the following affect flying conditions.
- Airflow on and around hills. Katabatic flow
- Wind gradient.
- Turbulence, venturi effect and gusts
- Thermals and cumulus cloud development
- Standing waves and their effect.
- Weather in XC Situations
The student will demonstrate an awareness that powered paragliders can fly in locations and maintain height where gliders are not able to do so. The need to maintain an awareness of overall wind direction and its effect in valley situations will be discussed and wind gradient in different topographical situations considered.
The student will demonstrate the ability to assess suitable flying weather.
- Theory of flight - General
The student will demonstrate a knowledge of:-
- Principles of flight including drag, airflow over the wing, angle of attack, wing loading, glide angle & sink speed.
- Effect of brakes on angle of attack and speed, also trim and speedbar. The effects of flying too slowly (the stall).
- Air speed - wind speed - ground speed
- Emergency and safety procedures.
- Theory of flight, Powered Paraglider
The student will demonstrate a knowledge of:-
- Lift,Thrust weight and drag and the effect of power on angles of attack.
- Forces in turns and the effect on stall speed.
- Climbing and diving turns.
- Reduction drives.
- Propeller theory.
- Torque effects and how these can be controlled.
- Gyroscopic forces and their effects.
- Asymmetric thrust : Causes and their associated effects.
- Understanding the trim of the motor and adjusting the thrust line for a particular weight of pilot and glider.
- Hang points - the effect of altering.
- The effect of speed systems on a powered paraglider under power on and off situations.
- The effects of weight on flying speed, stall speed/flare and the need for weight checks.
- Understand the concept that power equals climb and Brake/Trim/Speed-bar position equals air speed.
- The effect of flying too slowly.
- Emergency and safety procedures.
The pilot under training will demonstrate a knowledge of:-
- Dangers - powerlines, trees, water.
- Turbulence and its consequences.
- Flying with others, anticipation.
- Right of Way, Rules of the air.
- The emergency parachute.
- Choice of safe field including climb-out clearance, ground conditions, turbulence generators, obstructions and overshoot areas, including outlanding behaviour.
- Assessment of conditions for flight.
- Safe areas for onlookers.
- Noise nuisance and congested areas.
- Emergency stopping and take-off abort.
- Techniques for avoiding and recovering from where appropriate; tucks, stalls and spins and sudden power loss.
- Methods of navigation. Planning a 30 km (total) flight either as an out and return flight with a pre-declared turn point or as a flight to a predeclared goal.
- Emergency and safety procedures.
- Air Law
The pilot under training will demonstrate a thorough knowledge of air law and regulations applicable to powered foot launched aircraft with specific reference to the Air Navigation Rules (ANR) as appropriate.
- Collision avoidance
- Landing rules.
- Night (definition of)
- Congested areas.
- Minimum heights.
- Visual flight rules (VFR)
- Visual Met Conditions (VMC)
- Air Space
- Incident reports.
- Air Charts
- Thermalling rules
- Restrictions and hazards
- Aerodrome rules signals and symbols.
- Pre-Motorised Flights
Prior to flying with a motor unit the trainee will carry out the following tasks on a paraglider :-
N.B. These flights must be supervised by an Instructor
- Demonstrate an effective PLF (not wearing back pack)
- Correctly carry out pre and post flight routines
- Demonstrate the ability to plan a flight and execute the plan
- Demonstrate safe airspeed control
- Complete four appropriate controlled landings in a designated area
- Consistently demonstrate clean take offs, good flares and accurate landing into wind
- Demonstrate an 'S' turn approach as well as standard aircraft approach to safe landing
- Demonstrate safe and effective turn control of the aircraft
- Demonstrate emergency collapses (Paraglider on the ground)
- Demonstrate competence at forward and reverse launching and canopy control
- Demonstrate forward launches in zero wind
- Demonstrate Reverse pull-up and launch in high winds
- Demonstrate Big Ears
- Demonstrate safety and emergency procedures.
- 4.2 Motor Unit - Ground Work
- Demonstrate pre-take off control of aircraft
- Demonstrate simulated post landing control of aircraft
- Demonstrate competence at ground-running motor safely
- Demonstrate knowledge of the following:-
- Clearing the fuel supply of bubbles
- Clear prop
- Kill switch and emergency engine stopping
- Correctly carry out pre-and post flight routines
- Demonstrate launch abort
- Demonstrate safety and emergency procedures
- Powered Flight
N.B. These flights must be directly supervised by an approved Powered Paragliding Trainer.
They must not be undertaken until the Pre-Motorised Flights and Motor Ground Work have been completed.
- Demonstrate consistently good launch technique with Forward and reverse pullups
- Three consecutive powered flights from a flat site with at least 100ft. ground clearance, with unassisted take-off runs, smooth 90 deg. left and right turns including good airspeed and throttle control and finish with stand-up power off landings including full deflation of the canopy between flights.
- Complete 3 landings within 20m of a defined spot in winds of less than 5 mph. Complete 3 landings within 20m of a defined spot in winds of more than 10 mph.
- Minimum of 10 flights logged (including full deflation and inflation of canopy between flights.
- Demonstrate the safe and effective use of big ears.
- Carry out an accurate power-off landing to the satisfaction of the Instructor from at least 500ft.
- Demonstrate an ability to fly coordinated 360 deg. turns in both directions.
- Complete a 30 km (total) flight with a pre-declared turn point or as a flight to a declared goal or a triangle.
- Display the ability to fly safety with others, maintaining a good Look Out, complying with the Rules of the Air and exhibiting good Airmanship, and demonstrate an ability to manoeuvre Powered Paragliders safely, considerately and in accordance with air traffic rules.
- Must have successfully flown paramotors or paragliders or hang gliders or power gliders or microlights as pilot in command on at least 8 separate days within the previous 9 months.
- Must have a minimum of 5 hours logged airtime as pilot in command on paragliders, powered paragliders, power gliders or hang gliders or microlight of which at least 3 hours must be on powered paragliders.
- Satisfy the Instructor that the pilot has the correct attitude to continue a flying career both safely and competently.
- Pass the Powered Paragliding written Theoretical Knowledge exam.
An on-line copy can be obtained and printed here.